Final evaluation of the IGAD Programme “Promoting Peace and Stability in the Horn of Africa Region” (IPPSHAR)

August 2023 – January 2024

Final evaluation of the IGAD Programme “Promoting Peace and Stability in the Horn of Africa Region” (IPPSHAR)

Horn of Africa

Photo source: IGAD


The Horn of Africa has experienced several complex challenges in the last years, including the prolonged drought across Somalia, Northern Kenya and Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, the Tigray war, the Revitalised Peace Agreement in South Sudan still not fully implemented, the civil war in Sudan, the expansion of violent extremism, intercommunal cross-border conflicts and protracted local conflicts.

In this framework, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)’s goal is to develop and stimulate a regional identity, and attain peace, security, and alleviate poverty through sustainable development, including in priority areas such as agriculture, livestock and the blue economy, regional economic cooperation and integration, social development, and peace and security.

Against this backdrop, the IGAD Promoting Peace and Stability in the Horn of Africa Region (IPPSHAR) Programme was implemented (2017-2023) by the IGAD Peace and Security Division (PSD) and its programme units in partnership with the Austrian Development Agency (ADA).

AP conducted the final evaluation of IPPSHAR from August 2023 to January 2024. The overall objective of this evaluation was two-fold. The first objective was to assess the IPPSHAR programme to guarantee accountability. The second was to contribute to learning for future programming and implementation.


Overall, the programme encountered difficulties due to external factors, the delegated cooperation mechanism, IGAD absorption capacity and sustainability. IGAD ownership represented a critical aspect and there is a view that more should have been done to strengthen internal mechanisms and procedures avoiding a top-down approach. At the same time, the implementation pace and the mutual understanding have progressively improved during the second half of the programme. 

In terms of relevance, the findings show that IPPSHAR was designed in an in-depth participatory way on the strategic documents from the regional level, Member States (MSs) level and from international donors. Yet, limited evidence has been gathered to demonstrate enough involvement and support of senior decision-makers in MSs and to secure sufficient political leverage. 

Regarding coherence, evidence shows that there were several types of collaboration and coordination mechanisms used among the units and beyond. However, the lack of collaboration between PSD and other IGAD divisions during IPPSHAR implementation was highlighted on several occasions.

Concerning effectiveness, the evaluation looked at how IPPSHAR objectives were pursued and to what extent the intended outcomes were achieved. For example, the Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN) has been successful in enhancing its conflict data gathering and analysis tools and has provided training and support to build the capacity of technical staff in MSs. 

In terms of efficiency, the evaluation found that this structure pushed ADA to act as the owner of the project with IGAD supporting the implementation.  This approach limited the sense of IGAD’s ownership and generated challenges including buy-in from the MSs to ensure the efficiency of programme delivery. Regarding sustainability, some limitations are due to MSs capacity and their ability to adopt the policies developed under IPPSHAR.


Bernardo Venturi

Anthony Sarota

Hodan Ahmed

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